Being in the World with Intention
All of our lives are aimed, consciously or unconsciously, at a particular vision of what we see as the “good life.” Whatever vision of life we imagine as the kind of life that we want, this vision ends up pulling us toward a way of behaving and making decisions. The kind of clothes we wear, the kind of watch we buy, the houses we live in, the cars we drive, the vocations we choose—these are efforts to get what we want. If you want to find out about someone—ask them what they want, not what they believe.
In the first chapter of The Rule of St. Benedict, which became the rule of life that has governed the majority of Christian monastic expressions for the past 1500 years, Benedict describes four types of monks.
1. The first type, Cenobites, are monks who live under a rule of life, and an Abbot. This is the kind of monasticism that Benedict set out to form at the beginning of the 6th century. It was Benedict who had the vision for solitary hermits to come together under one roof and share a life together—a life of prayer, study, and bodily labor.
2. The second kind of monk, according to Benedict’s rule, is the Anchorite, or the hermit. Benedict thought that the only way one should go out into the wilderness by himself, is after a long period of living with others and receiving their encouragement, exhortation, and strength.
3. The third kind of monks are the Sarabites. These are the worst kind of monk. These kind of monks have never submitted themselves to anything. They don’t live under a rule. They don’t submit to a leader. They aren’t willing to be molded by others. And as a result of this, “…the pleasure of their desires is to them a law; and whatever they like or make a choice of, they will have to be holy, but what they don’t like, they consider unlawful.” Benedict says these kind of monks have a character that is as soft as lead. There is a loyalty to the world, says Benedict, that makes one’s commitment to God seem like a lie.
4. The fourth kind of monks are the gyrovagues. These are the drifters. They are one’s who refuse to stay put and be formed by a particular people. They are constant guests while traveling from one place or another.
Benedict goes onto say that it is better to keep silent about these last three kinds of monks. He just passes them by and launches in on his plan for the strong kind, the cenobites.
With no disrespect to St. Benedict, I can’t resist making some observations about the kind of life that most of us are content in living.
If everyone was a monk—most of us would be Sarabites. It's in our nature. We, all of us, are naturally directed by our desires. We find ways of calling the things we want, “good.” And this happens without us even realizing it. The power of our desires end up shaping the little decisions in our life, and before we know it, the habits of our everyday life are pointed and aligned in a specific direction. This is why you can learn most about a person by asking them what they want, rather than what they believe. What we want ends up pulling towards the kind of life we are trying to get at.
But what happens when we discover that the things we want, and thus, the direction of our life, aren’t really all that great? We can try to change the things we want, but it doesn’t work that easily. If you have ever tried to give up a bad a habit, you may rememberer that it’s not often that you stop wanting the thing you are trying to quit. You want to quit that afternoon cup of coffee, but 1pm comes around, and you want coffee. Changing what we want is actually really hard.
In his wonderful book, Desiring the Kingdom, James K. A. Smith leads us through a discussion of how we all have an implicit picture of the kingdom of God. Smith argues that our primary orientation in the world is governed by our loves and our desires. You should read his book. There are few books that really have the power to re-orient. This is one of them.
We are starting a monastic expression because true formation requires a set of practices and habits in order to point our hearts in the proper direction. This doesn’t happen only through the institution of a monastery, of course. There are a multitude of ways to be formed and habituated toward a certain way of being in the world. We are formed, for better or worse, by our habits and practices. What monasteries have done throughout history is provide a way of life–a forma vitae–not a list of rules and regulations that we super-impose on life, but rather, a doing and living with a level of intention that eventually trains our hearts to do the things we set out to do in the first place.
In short, once our hearts are trained toward the kingdom of God, the rule of life that we have chosen to come under nearly becomes obsolete. A rule of life is there to hem us in when needed, but it works more like a marriage vow than a daily operative. In marriage, the vow only comes into sharp focus when the heart has become trained away from the commitment. The marriage vow is a reminder of the commitment to be formed (in one’s love) toward a particular person, and in a particular way. The vow is what you return to. But it isn’t the vow that does the heavy-lifting on a day-to-day basis. What operates on a day-to-day basis is the doing and living of marriage–hopefully, the kind of living that is in line with the commitment that the vow holds. It's in this doing and living where our flaws are exposed. This is where we learn about grace and forgiveness. This is where we receive the gift of another person’s constancy. This is where turn to another with a deep reverence for the work of mirroring back to us the capacity of who we are.
I think people are searching for a way of life. Our cultural hindrance in the West is that we have been taught that we ourselves can provide that way of life. We have been taught autonomy. We have been taught that we can read scripture, by ourselves. That we can worship, by ourselves. That we can work, by ourselves. And while we can do those things on our own-it’s a fools errand to believe that we can change without the constancy of other people. We have been conditioned to embody the spirit of a Sarabitic monk, and this makes for a long road toward true formation.
We are starting a monastery because we want to invite people into the joy that comes from a willingness to be molded by something outside of oneself. There is a great freedom in obedience. This is the foundation of historic monasticism–that in the humility of obedience, we walk into a way of life that more closely aligns with Jesus.
*This post is the third in an ongoing series. Here is Part 1 where I talk about what happens when we seek our life in God. And, Part 2, where I consider why people have never considered a monastic vocation.